Collective Action
March 27, 2023

Collective Action

Unification is essential when facing global issues. Find out how collective action can help save our planet!

What is collective action?

Collective action is the joint efforts of a group of individuals or organisations that work together to achieve a common goal or solve a shared problem. Many issues cannot be solved alone so collective action promotes the sharing of resources, knowledge, and expertise to address complex social, economic, or environmental issues more successfully. Multiple forms of collective action exist, from nonviolent protests and advocacy campaigns to community organisations and cooperative projects. It frequently requires a shared vision, shared values, and a readiness to cooperate towards a common goal.

What is the purpose of collective action?

The goal of collective action is bringing about social, economic, or environmental change that cannot be accomplished by individuals working alone. By working together and combining their resources, expertise, and experience, individuals and groups can solve challenging problems, topple established power structures, and defend their rights and interests. Some frequent objectives for group action include:

Advocacy: With advocacy, a problem can be highlighted, legislation can be forced through, and officials can be made to answer for their actions.

Mobilisation: Individuals might be inspired by collective action to take action on a particular issue, support a particular cause, or join a particular group.

Building community: Participating in group activities can help people who share interests or identities feel more connected to one another and more united.

Power building: Collective action can weaken established power systems and  forge new sources of authority and influence.

Solving issues: Collective action can bring together individuals with various backgrounds and specialities to address challenging social, economic, or environmental issues.

What is an example of collective action?

The 2018-starting worldwide climate strike movement is an illustration of collective environmental action. Millions of people worldwide were inspired by the campaign spearheaded by young activists to demand immediate action against climate change.

Large-scale protests, marches, and rallies were held during the climate strikes, along with other kinds of activism, such as school walkouts, social media campaigns, and civil disobedience. The strikes were intended to exert greater pressure on organisations and governments to cut greenhouse gas emissions and lessen the effects of climate change.

Through collective action, the climate strike movement has helped to raise awareness about the urgency of the climate crisis and put pressure on decision-makers to take action. It has also inspired a broader movement for climate justice and sustainability, with people from all walks of life joining together to demand a more just and sustainable future for all.

What is the difference between collection action and social movement?

Social movements and collective action share some similarities but differ in several significant ways.

Collective action describes the coordinated activities of a group of people or organisations working together to accomplish a particular objective or address a common issue. Peaceful demonstrations, advocacy efforts, community organising, and cooperative projects are just a few examples of the many forms that collective action can take.

On the other hand, social movements are more extensive and longer-lasting initiatives to support social, political, or cultural change. Social movements may be characterised by a shared identity, values, and beliefs and frequently involve a variety of collective acts across time.

However, not all collective actions are a part of a social movement. Social movements typically last longer and entail numerous joint activities, whereas collective actions might be isolated and short-lived

Another significant distinction is that while collective activities may concentrate on particular concerns or problems without attempting broader systemic change, social movements frequently work to alter the underlying structures and mechanisms that fuel social crises.

What are the types of collective action?

Protests: Groups often protest in public gatherings to draw attention to societal issues and demand change. Protests come in many forms including, including rallies, marches, and sit-ins.

Strikes and boycotts: Strikes and boycotts are forms of collective action in which individuals or groups refuse to go to work or make purchases to exert pressure on public figures or businesses.

Advocacy campaigns: Changing public opinion through educating the public, lobbying elected officials, and using social media and other communication channels.

Community organising: People and organisations unite to strengthen the local authority and address particular issues that impact their community.

Collaboration initiatives: When people meet to discuss challenging social, economic, or environmental issues.

Civil disobedience: When groups of people intentionally break the law or defy authorities to make a point in protesting unfair practices or laws. 

What is the collective action theory?

The collective action theory is a social science hypothesis explaining why people and groups work together to accomplish shared objectives. The theory analyses the driving forces behind why people prefer to unite to solve social, economic, or political problems. According to the theory, people take collective action when they believe than working together will help them achieve their objectives more efficiently than working individually. Additionally, it emphasises the significance of social networks, shared values, and group identity in inspiring group action.

What are the benefits of collective action?

Increased effectiveness: Collective action can be more effective than individual action because it pools resources, knowledge, and expertise, enabling groups to achieve goals that would be difficult or impossible to achieve alone.

Amplified voices: Collective action can amplify the voices of individuals and communities, drawing attention to important issues and creating opportunities for advocacy and policy change.

Greater accountability: Collective action can hold decision-makers accountable, ensuring they are responsive to the needs and interests of the communities they serve.

Community building: Participating in group activities lays the groundwork for a feeling of belonging and kinship with those who share your interests.

Empowerment: By giving people the chance to engage in decision-making processes and upending existing power structures, collective action can empower people.

Positive change: The ultimate purpose of collective action is to bring about constructive social change by advocating for more equity and justice.

What is the power of collective action?

“Collective action played an important role in not only helping us achieve our zero waste target, but in rapidly accelerating the speed of our global roll-out programme, meaning we reached our target well ahead of schedule,” - Tony Dunnage on achieving sustainability goals at Unilever.

Working together towards shared goals and achieving positive social change is known as the power of collective action. People can combine their resources, knowledge, and skills to amplify their impact, hold decision-makers accountable, and push for a fairer society.

Collective action is especially powerful when individuals or communities feel left out or ignored in the decision-making process. When they unite, they can challenge existing power structures and demand more transparency from those with authority.

Apart from bringing about societal change, collective action also has the potential to influence people's attitudes, values, and behavior in meaningful ways. Increasing public awareness of social, economic, or environmental problems can help change policies and build a more just and equitable society.

In the end, the strength and resiliency of communities dedicated to working towards a common objective give collective action its power. Collective action can produce long-lasting change that benefits everyone through fostering teamwork, establishing a sense of solidarity, and preserving a long-term vision.

How do you create collective action?

  1. Identifying a common goal: Finding a shared objective is the first stage in organising a group of individuals to take action on a problem or issue they care about. This objective ought to be something that appeals to a broad spectrum of people and can unite them.
  2. Developing relationships: Creating strong bonds and trust is key to successful collective action. Reaching out to like-minded people, and potential allies and building social networks is a great starting point. 
  3. Mobilising resources: Resources such as funding, knowledge, and volunteers are essential for collective action. Determining what resources are required for the specific goal is crucial in accomplishing the shared goal and creating an effective strategy to utilise those resources. 
  4. Creating a plan of action: A clear plan is also essential for implementing successful collective action. A clear plan includes setting objectives, identifying important stakeholders, and developing a strategy to influence key decision-makers.
  5. Action: Collective action requires action. It's crucial to be deliberate and strategic to ensure that the right course of action is chosen and it supports the collective's objectives and ideals.
  6. Evaluation of progress: It's critical to routinely assess how well everyone is doing in reaching the shared objective and make necessary strategy changes. Indicators of success may need to be tracked, stakeholder opinions gathered, and situational changes may require adaptation.

How do individual acts lead to collective action?

Raising awareness: When people take action to bring attention to a problem or issue, it can increase awareness and inspire group action. This could be posting information on social media, participating in demonstrations or marches, or sending letters to decision-makers.

Building relationships: Establishing connections and partnerships between individuals is a way for those with similar interests or goals to do so. These connections form the basis for group activity by fostering a sense of belonging and a common goal.

Modelling behaviour: People acting in ways that support a group's ideals and objectives can motivate others to follow suit. This may snowball, involving more individuals in the collective activity and their participation.

Creating pressure: Individual actions can compel decision-makers to act on a matter by applying pressure. This could be signing letters or petitions, participating in boycotts or divestment movements, or practising civil disobedience.

Developing expertise: As people become specialists in a specific subject or issue, it may open up possibilities for group action. Sharing one's knowledge and experience with others might inspire them to take the initiative and strive towards a common objective.

Individual actions can be crucial in generating collective action, serving as a basis for knowledge development, relationship building, behaviour modelling, and pressure generation. Individuals can affect positive social change and advance greater equity and justice by banding together to achieve a common objective.

What is the main problem with collective action?

Many challenges, such as the following, may hinder collective action:

Free-riders: The "free-rider" problem arises when individuals or organisations profit from a shared activity without taking part.

Problem with coordination: When numerous individuals are engaged, coordination between people and groups can be complex. This may result in duplication of effort or contradictory tactics and conflict, which could reduce the potency of group action.

Power disparities: It may be challenging to accomplish shared objectives when there are disparities in power between people or organisations. Those in positions of power may resist change or co-opt or thwart efforts at group action.

Lack of resources: Funding, knowledge, and volunteers are frequently needed for collective action. A need for more resources might constrain the ability of people and organisations to accomplish their goals.

Absence of trust: Establishing trust between people and groups might take time and effort. Building solid relationships and cooperating on a common objective might be challenging without trust.

What factors influence collective action?

Shared identity: People are more likely to behave collectively when they feel a sense of belonging or a shared identity. Based on prevailing political, social, or cultural ideals.

Size of the group: The size of the group can influence how a group takes action. Smaller groups may find it easier to organise and coordinate even if larger ones may have more resources and visibility.

Diversity: Within a group, individual differences can both benefit and impede collective performance. Although a varied group may contribute various viewpoints and experiences, disagreements over values or priorities make reaching a consensus on objectives or tactics more challenging.

Degree of organisation: Institutions or groups that provide leadership and coordination might make working together easier. Political parties, neighbourhood groups, and labour unions may all fall under this category.

Resources: Funding, knowledge, and volunteers are necessary for collective action. Organisations with more resources might be better equipped to organise and maintain initiatives for collective action.

External influences: External influences can impact group behaviour, including governmental policies, economic situations, and social movements. Political or economic climate changes can provide new opportunities for a group activity or present unique challenges.

Communication: Clear communication is necessary for group action. Communication channels that promote collaboration, coordination, and information sharing can help create momentum for group action.

How can we measure the impact of collective action?

Although assessing the effects of collective action may be challenging, it is essential for determining the success of the initiative and creating improvements for the future. A few methods for assessing the impact of collective action include the following:

Set concrete objectives and metrics for success: Begin by outlining the results you intend to achieve through teamwork. Once these objectives have been set, monitor development over time and gauge success using metrics related to these objectives.

Conduct surveys and interviews: Data can be used to gather feedback and determine how the collective activity has affected communities and people. You can identify areas for improvement and understand the endeavour's perceived rewards with these tools.

Monitor alterations in behaviour or attitudes: Surveys or direct observation can be used to gauge modifications in behaviour or attitudes brought about by collective activity. You should monitor changes in recycling behaviour or attitudes over time if the collective action campaign aims to reduce waste.

Use statistics and data: Compile and assess statistics and data to ascertain the consequences of group action. There may be information on resource use, emissions, or other environmental or social factors.

Cooperate with professionals: Get the aid of experts in the field to assist you in developing the right measurements and indicators for evaluating impact. You can make sure your plan is comprehensive and trustworthy by doing this.

What role do governments and institutions play in supporting collective action?

  • Governments and institutions can encourage cooperation between various groups and organisations to stimulate collective action. You could do this by forming committees or working groups to handle specific issues or by holding forums for discussion and debate.
  • Governments and other organisations can launch education and awareness campaigns to help individuals comprehend the benefits of collective action and how to participate.
  • Governments can enact laws and regulations that support collective activity, such as the freedom to gather, demonstrate, and organise. Collective action participants may also benefit from legal protection from them.
  • By giving funding and resources like grants, subsidies, and access to facilities or equipment, governments and institutions can support initiatives that take collective action.
  • Regulations that encourage sustainable practises are just one example of the rules and regulations that governments and institutions can make to support community-based organisations and stimulate group action.


In conclusion, group efforts have the power to make a significant difference and address complex social and environmental concerns. Whether it involves community organising, advocacy, or social movements, collective action joins disparate individuals and groups to create a single force for change. Collective action can substantially influence and bring about long-lasting change, even if it can be difficult and takes consistent effort and dedication. We can achieve a more just, equitable, and sustainable future by setting clear goals, forming diverse coalitions, establishing effective communication, and utilising the backing of institutions and the government. Each of us can support efforts for group action in our communities and elsewhere. Together, we can forge an effective force for good change and make a real difference in the world.