Fast Fashion
January 23, 2023

Fast Fashion

Fast fashion is a term used to describe the rapid production of cheap, fashionable clothing to meet the demands of a rapidly changing market.

What is fast fashion? 

Fast fashion is a term used to describe inexpensive clothing trends that move rapidly to stores to meet new demands. Fast fashion allows mainstream consumers to purchase appealing trendy clothing at a relatively low cost. The clothing is often made using cheaper materials and labour, which is what makes it more affordable and rapid.

Why is fast fashion a problem?

Poor Working Conditions: Fast fashion encourages unethical labour as working conditions often include long hours, minimal breaks, low wages, unsafe environment, and little to no benefits. 

Environmental Damage: Fast fashion significantly contributes to environmental damage by overusing resources such as water, energy, and land. The rapid production of clothing contributes to air, water, and soil pollution, as well as the use of hazardous chemicals. 

Low Quality: Fast fashion clothing is often made with low-quality materials and careless construction, meaning that it will not last for long and will need to be replaced often. 

Waste: The majority of items are often thrown out after a few wears due to poor quality as well as the quick turnover of trends that makes the clothing suddenly out of style. These factors increase the contribution to waste beyond what is necessary and normal. Much of this textile waste is sent to landfills, where it can take up to 200 years to decompose.

Encourages overconsumption: Fast fashion encourages people to buy more clothes than they need, creating excessive amounts of waste and contributing to a culture of overconsumption.

What is a fast fashion example? 

Common fast fashion brands include Zara, H&M, and Shein. These brands specialise in producing cheap, fashionable clothing that is quickly designed, made, and sold at a low cost. 

Take Zara, whose production cycle is one of the shortest in the industry, with new designs arriving in stores twice a week. They produce their clothes in countries such as Bangladesh, India, Turkey, Morocco, and China. Zara pays these employees depending on the localised legal amount. In Bangladesh, the minimum wage for garment workers is $68 per month, while in India, it is $115 per month. The clothing production is extremely cheap - the exact cost of producing a Zara clothing item varies depending on the item, but the average cost is estimated to be between $5 and $7 and is resold from around $20 to $200. Thus, Zara demonstrates the classic fast-fashion model. 

What should we buy instead of fast fashion?

Instead of fast fashion, you should buy sustainable, eco-friendly, and/or second-hand clothing. Sustainable clothing companies use more environmentally friendly materials, such as organic cotton, recycled materials, and low-impact dyes. These companies also work to ensure their production processes are as energy efficient and low-waste as possible. By supporting these companies, you can help reduce the environmental damage that is caused by the fashion industry. There are so many sustainable brands out there and the industry is only growing! Check out Good on You's page to discover some clean clothing brands.

Patagonia is a remarkable brand going above and beyond for the planet. Earlier this year, the clothing company announced that it would transform into a charitable trust with all profits from its US$1.5 billion in annual sales going towards climate change, making the planet its only shareholder.

Buying second-hand clothing is the best way to reduce the impact of fast fashion and the waste that is produced by the fashion industry. It helps reduce the number of resources needed to produce new clothing and keeps clothing from going to landfills. Additionally, buying second-hand clothing is often more affordable than buying new, meaning it can help reduce consumer spending on clothing.

Why do people continue to buy fast fashion?

According to the Psychology of Fast Fashion, people continue to buy fast fashion for a multitude of reasons:

- Affordability
- Convenience and accessibility
- Appeal of trend-based items
- Acting on social and cultural influences
- Partake in cognitive disonance
- Play the blame game

Who benefits from fast fashion?

Companies benefit from fast fashion, as it allows them to keep their costs low, upsell at a large scale and stay competitive in the market. It also benefits consumers, as it provides them with a large selection of fashionable clothing at a lower cost than traditional fashion. 

Who is to blame for fast fashion

Fast fashion results from a complex network of stakeholders, including designers, consumers, retailers, and manufacturers. Each of these actors is responsible for contributing to the growth of fast fashion. Consumers are largely to blame, as they are the ones buying the products that fuel the fast fashion industry. The fashion industry is also to blame, as they produce and sell the products and often exploit their workers to do so. 

Fast fashion workers

Unethical labour practices in the fast fashion industry are rampant and include extremely low wages, dangerous working conditions, and violations of human rights. Low wages are a major problem, with many workers in the industry making less than the minimum wage in their country. Additionally, workers often work long hours in poor and dangerous conditions, with little safety equipment provided. Workers can be denied the right to form unions or take part in collective bargaining. Finally, the fast fashion industry is a major contributor to the exploitation of child labour, with young children working long hours for little pay in dangerous conditions.

Public awareness in recent years has pressured countries and companies to change these unethical practices. The Rana Plaza factory collapse was a real wake-up call for the world to push for change. The disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in the Savar Upazila of Dhaka District, Bangladesh, where an eight-story commercial building named Rana Plaza collapsed. The building housed a number of separate garment factories, a bank, apartments, and several shops. The search for the dead ended on 13 May 2013 with a death toll of 1,134. Approximately 2,500 injured people were rescued from the building alive. It is considered the deadliest garment-factory accident in history, as well as the deadliest accidental structural failure in modern human history. Since then, a legally-binding agreement known as the International Accord for Health and Safety in the Textile and Garment Industry has been released. The Accord is legally binding and requires signatories to take steps to ensure the safety of workers in the factories they use, such as conducting regular safety inspections, making factories safer and providing compensation to victims and their families in the event of a disaster. The Accord is intended to be a model for other industries and is seen as an important step in improving labour conditions and worker rights in the global apparel and textile industry.

Fast fashion's environmental impact

The production of fast fashion garments is often associated with toxic chemicals, dyes, and other materials that can negatively impact the environment. Additionally, the large amounts of water and energy required to produce fast fashion garments contribute to global warming. Fast fashion also contributes to the waste crisis, as most low-quality clothes often end up in landfills due to their low longevity. This can release harmful chemicals into the environment. Furthermore, the transportation of fast fashion garments has a significant carbon footprint, as goods must be shipped worldwide to meet demand.

Here are some shocking statistics that give some insight into how harmful the fashion industry is to the environment:

1. Fast fashion contributes to 10% of global carbon emissions. 

2. Fast fashion creates around 92 million tons of waste every year. 

3. On average, 20% of all water used worldwide is used to create clothing. 

4. Approximately 85% of all textiles created end up in landfills or incinerators. 

5. The fashion industry accounts for a quarter of all chemicals used globally. 

6. The production of synthetic fibres such as polyester, nylon, and acrylic is responsible for up to 35% of the world's microplastic pollution. 

7. The fashion industry is responsible for 8-10% of global carbon emissions. 

8. About 60 billion garments are produced every year.

How to shop responsibly

Shop mindfully. Consider the quality and longevity of the item: Will it last? Do you already have something similar in your wardrobe? Can you wear it in multiple seasons? 

Look for sustainable materials. Choose materials like organic cotton, hemp, or linen that are more sustainable than conventional fabrics. 

Buy second-hand. Shopping second-hand is a great way to find unique, quality pieces while reducing the demand for new fast fashion and reducing clothing waste. 

Choose ethical brands. Do your research and make sure the brand you buy from has ethical standards regarding labour, materials, and environmental practices. 

Check the labels. Look for certifications like Fair Trade, Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS), and Organic Content Standard (OCS) to ensure that the company follows ethical practices. 

Support local. Buying from local makers and small businesses helps to reduce the environmental impact of shipping and supports the local economy.

Donate. Donating unwanted items to charities or thrift stores helps reduce waste and supports good causes.


Fast fashion is a growing and robust industry with a heavy negative impact on the environment and labour market. Consumers should be aware of the consequences of their choices and support brands that are making efforts to reduce their harmful effects. With awareness and action, it is possible to reduce the popularity of fast fashion and create a more sustainable and ethical fashion industry.