February 22, 2023


The UNFCCC is a treaty that provides a framework for nations to work together to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases and combat climate change.

What is the purpose of UNFCCC?

UNFCCC stands for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It is an international treaty signed in 1992 at an environmental United Nations Conference in Rio de Janeiro and became effective in 1994. The UNFCCC's overarching objective is to combat the effects of climate change and minimise human contribution to global warming. The treaty has been ratified by 198 countries, including the European Union. 

What are the goals of UNFCCC?

The pact requires nations to make the following commitments:

  • Reduce human impacts and contributions while reducing emissions of glasshouse gases.
  • Create and support policies and measures nations can use to combat climate change.
  • encourage global collaboration in the fight against climate change.
  • Encourage industrialised nations to support developing nations financially so they can accomplish their climate-related objectives.
  • Encourage and facilitate the creation of a climate change education platform.
  • Increase the ability of nations to respond to climate change.

When was UNFCCC established?

The UNFCCC was created in 1992 and adopted in 1994. 

Where are the UNFCCC headquarters?

Bonn, Germany.

What are the agreements around the UNFCCC?

Over the years, the UNFCCC has established several international agreements in an effort to accomplish its main objectives:

  • The Kyoto Protocol 1997
  • The Paris Agreement 2015 - This is the most recent and current agreement being adhered to. 
  • The Cancun Agreements 2010
  • The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol 2012
  • The Marrakech Accords 2016
  • The Talanoa Dialogue 2018

How many countries are in the UNFCCC?

198 countries are a part of the UNFCCC.

What obstacles do the UNFCCC's goals face?

According to the World Resources Institute, here are the 5 main challenges that the UNFCCC is facing:

  1. The shift from negotiation to implementation
  2. Advancing accountability and spurring more climate action
  3. Meaningfully addressing equity climate justice
  4. Harnessing the momentum driven by businesses, cities, communities and citizens
  5. Expanding climate dialogue beyond the UNFCCC

What are the commitments of each country under the UNFCCC? 

Depending on the country's level of economic development, commitments differ, but by joining the UNFCCC, nations have pledged to: 

  • Create a strategy to reduce GHG emissions and establish goals to carry it out.
  • Put policies and procedures in place to cut GHG emissions and successfully withstand the effects of climate change.
  • To assist them in achieving their climate-related objectives, provide financial resources to emerging nations.
  • Share any resources and information about climate change that they find useful.
  • Cooperate with other nations to create a sense of togetherness and teamwork.
  • Participate in global climate agreements like the Conference of the Parties (COP).
  • Implement and promote climate change education and public awareness campaigns.

How has the UNFCCC addressed the issue of finance for climate change? 

To finance climate action, the UNFCCC has established two financial platforms.

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was established to aid developing nations' efforts to combat climate change. The GCF is meant to serve as the focal point of initiatives to raise money for climate change. A 24-member board manages the fund, while an independent Secretariat is in charge of day-to-day management and operations. AS of 31 July 2020, the GCF had pledges from 49 countries/regions/cities for USD 10.3 billion. 2008 saw the establishment of the Adaptation Fund in response to the Kyoto Protocol. It offers funding to poor nations for certain initiatives and plans to prepare for climate change's effects. A percentage of the money earned from Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits produced by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is used to pay for it.

What is the role of the private sector in achieving the UNFCCC's goals?

IFC (international Finance Corporation) CEO Philippe Le Houérou says “The private sector holds the key to fight climate change. The private sector has the innovation, the financing, and the tools. We can help unlock more private sector investment, but this also requires government reforms as well as innovative business models – which together will create new markets and attract the necessary investment. This can fulfil the promise of Paris.”

The UNFCCC relies heavily on the corporate sector to assist it in accomplishing its climate-related objectives. Businesses can make the biggest impact on the global agreement by lowering their GHG emissions. Measuring GHG emissions and creating standardised reporting procedures is the first step. Companies must invest in clean, environmentally friendly technologies to lower their emissions. In this objective, renewable energy and a low-carbon supply chain are crucial. Making sure their goods and services are sustainable, whether through the use of recyclable or compostable packaging or a carbon-neutral delivery service, is another vital consideration. Additionally, businesses can implement voluntary programmes to lower their emissions, like spending money on carbon-offsetting initiatives like planting trees. 


In conclusion, the UNFCCC is a crucial agreement that offers a forum for nations to band together in the battle against climate change. It enables states to collaborate and design a strategy to realise a common, overarching goal supported by experts on the UNFCCC board. Countries must use the tools and data the UNFCCC offers to meet their climate goals when the effects of climate change worsen, and rigorous action becomes necessary.